Nepal is known as land of Himalayas world over. There are 1,310 peaks above 6000 meters of which 238 are already opened for climbing. Likewise, out of fourteen 8000 meters above peaks eight of them, including the highest peak in the world, Mount Everest lie in Nepal. Other seven are namely Kanchanjunga, Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu and Annapurna.
Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world measuring 8,848 m(29,028 feet) in height. It was first climbed on May 29, 1953 by a New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay of Nepal. Mount Everest is also known by the Tibetan name Chomolangma (Goddess Mother of the Snows), and by the Nepali name Sagarmatha (Mother of the Universe).
Mount Everest attracts many highly experienced mountaineers as well as capable climbers willing to hire professional guides. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the standard route) and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, wind as well as significant objective hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. While the overwhelming majority of climbers will use bottled oxygen in order to reach the top, some climbers have summited Everest without supplemental oxygen.
Kanchenjunga (8,586) is the third highest mountain in the world. From 1838 until 1849, it was believed to be the highest. It is an enormous mountain mass, and many satellite peaks rise from its narrow icy ridges. It is located on the border of Nepal and Sikkim, just 46 miles northwest of Darjeeling. It is the most easterly of the great 8,000-meter peaks of the Himalaya.
As inspiring as Kanchenjunga’s beauty is that at least the first three parties to ascend the mountain never attempted the final few feet to the summit out of voluntary respect for the Sikkim’s,who consider the summit sacred. The successful British expedition of 1955 set the standard by stopping a few feet short of the actual summit, in honor of the local religion.
Lhotse (8,516) is the fourth highest mountain in the world. Its long east-west crest is located immediately south of Mount Everest and the summits of the two mountains are connected by the South Col, a vertical ridge that never drops below 8,000 meters. Lhotse is sometimes mistakenly identified as the south peak of the Everest massif. No serious attention was turned to climbing Lhotse until after Everest had finally been ascended. Lhotse was first climbed in 1956 by two Swiss, Fritz Luchsinger and Ernest Reiss.
Makalu (8,463) is the fifth highest mountain in the world. It is an isolated peak, located just 14 miles east of Mount Everest. Its size alone is impressive, but its structure, that of a perfect pyramid with four sharp ridges, makes this mountain all the more spectacular.
Cho Oyu (8,201) is the sixth highest mountain in the world, located a short distance to the west from Everest and Lhotse (the fourth highest) in the Khumbu region of Eastern Nepal along the Tibetan border. Its towering peak stands with Everest well above the surrounding mountains. It became a familiar landmark to climbers ascending Everest’s north face. Just west of Cho Oyu is the Nangpa La, a 19,000-foot glacier pass, and the main trade route between the Khumbu Sherpas and Tibet. Cho Oyu proximity to the Nangpa La has earned it the distinction among some climbers as being the easiest 8,000 meter peak. It was the third such peak climbed, and the first climbed in autumn by two Austrian.
Dhaulagiri (8,167), whose name means White Mountain, is the seventh highest mountain in the world. It is an enormous Himalayan massif, located in north central Nepal. It is the highest mountain located entirely within Nepal. After its discovery by the western world in 1808, it replaced Ecuador’s Chimborazo (20,561 ft.) as the postulated highest mountain in the world. It maintained this standing for nearly 30 years, until the discovery of Kanchenjunga, which was then falsely believed to be the world’s highest mountain.
Manaslu (8,163) is the high peak of the Gorkha massif, and is the eighth highest mountain in the world. It is located about forty miles east of Annapurna, the tenth highest mountain. The name Manaslu is derived from the Sanskrit word Manasa and can be roughly translated as Mountain of the Spirit. An all-female Japanese expedition successfully ascended to the summit, thereby becoming the first women to climb an 8,000-meter peak.
Annapurna (8091) is an enormous Himalayan massif, the tenth highest mountain in the world. In 1950, it became the first 8,000 meter mountain to be successfully climbed. It is located east of a great gorge cut through the Himalaya by the Kali Gandaki river. The mountain has glaciers on its western and northwestern slopes, which drain into this gorge.